What is coffee
What exactly is coffee? Well, this is a prepared using roasted beans which are the seeds of certain coffee berries. I do not need to introduce the bean but still how many can identify a real coffee tree.
A berry spends about a year to mature after flowering and almost about five to six years to have a full growth. The approximate life span of a plant is eighty years but you can find some about hundred years old.
The cultivators need to give special attention between seven to twenty years because these ages are the most productive ages. You can gain an average production of about 10 pounds per year from an ordinary coffee plant.Still the cultivation cannot tolerate frost. Also, the crop requires sunlight but not too much, two – hour sunning is just sufficient per day.
More about coffee…
According to recent research there are coffee species ranging from 25 – 100 around the globe at present. From the point of view of the consumer, there are two main industrially popular types namely Arabica and the Robusta.
Well, this is the second largest trading product in the entire globe. Almost three quarter of the world population loves this beverage making it worth around $100 billion. But it is surprising that only Hawaii of all United States cultivate this plant. The Mexican states, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Columbia are the coffee providers in the American continent while Brail captures the position of the largest producer of this great beverage.
Moreover, Ethiopia, Kenya and Ivory coast with Yemen portraits to be the African producers. Meanwhile Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Indonesia and China play a major role in the Asian Continent as great coffee producers.
Coffee was originally called ‘Qahhwat al-bun’ which means ‘the wine of bean’ and later came to be known as ‘Qahwa’ from which the Turks derived the word ‘Kahve’. The English term actually derived from the Dutch term ‘Koffie’.
The true heir of Coffee Arabica is the states of Ethiopia which has gain world attention since it is the finest, warmest and the most aromatically presented coffee of all time. Though the origin is Ethiopia, the proof of using coffee as a drink runs to the beginning of 15th century in a cloister of the Sufi in the Yemen and later spread to the Mecca of Medina and Cairo of Egypt. But still there is a debating factor in between Yemen and Ethiopia to claim the first ownership of this special drink.
Ethiopian fable – This is a mythical story in the ancient written sources of A.D. 1679 which tells about a herder named Kalfi noticed that his goats were more fortified after feasting on red coloured berries of an unknown plant which ultimately made him to taste them too and feel this himself.
After being delighted from the taste he managed to take some to his spouse and it was her suggestion to offer some of these precious berries to the monks. But his offering was not accepted unless they were thrown into fire. This was the time when the monks smelled the roasted beans and later accepted this as a treasure.
The Yemenian myths provide evidence of two tales on the discovery of coffee.
- ‘Gothul Akbar Nooruddin Abu al Hasan al Shadhili encountered coffee – This is same as the Ethiopian tale. Shadhili was journeying along Ethiopia when he saw forfeited birds and noticed the reason for this. He came into a conclusion that this is because of a berry like fruit and he tried some and this is the foremost fable.
- Sheikh Omar encountered coffee – Omar was banished to a cave in the desert where he starved for days and found some bitter berries as food which he just threw into the fire after figuring out that they were no good as raw. Later he boiled them in a pot of water in order to soften them and discovered the pleasant odour of the blackish brown liquid and decided to drink it.
Actually, this cannot be true but it is in ancient text of Arab says that if the husband failed to supply sufficient amount of coffee to his spouse then she has the legal authority to divorce.
In the 1675, King Charles of England prohibited coffee after the campaign of the women who were unhappy about the virility of their husbands.
Back at the 1932 Olympics, the Brazilian LA athletes were loaded into a coffee ship asked them to trade them on their journey since Brazil could not afford to send their competitors.
According to the historical records, the world-famous composer Beethoven would count exactly 60 beans per cup. Kind of weird but is true.
The coffee dashes its derivation to the Coffea genus from the Botanical family Rubiaceae, one of the largest families in the plant kingdom, where there is about 6000 classes and 500 categories of plants. Coffee is neither a bean nor roast nor cherry but instead is a drupe. Carolus Linnaeus, described this in his Species Plantarum in 1753 but the majority of the botanist were in opposition since there are many varieties of the coffee.
The main contrasting qualities that lead up to this are the plants varying from undergrowth bushes to massive trees, leaves without an average length varying till 16cm -17cm, leaves in multiple colours such as green, yellow and etc. and two main types in the market with different characteristics.
The flowers of the coffee plant are white in colour and possess a good scent as well. Coffee is not a legume but the tree produces edible purple or red fruits which are commonly known as “cherries” that are described either as indehiscent drupes or as epigynous berries.
One of the most important constituents of the bean is caffeine which is an alkaloid from the group of purine which is too good for the central nervous system. Even the caffeine is a natural plant shield against herbivory which is a toxic substance that protects the seeds.
- 1. Arabica
Arabica is inborn to the uplands of the western state of Ethiopia and is the one and only autogenous of this genus. The seed of this plant is elongated. The cultivation of Arabica spreads to Ceylon later known as Sri Lanka, Indonesia and to India. The major producer and exporter of this was Ceylon till the plantations were destroyed by the fungus called Hemileia vastatrix in the late 20th century.
- 2. Robusta
When considering Robusta, it is unique to the central and western Africa. This was introduced to Asia in order to replace the Arabica plant that was totally ruined by the fungus to the Eastern states of Asia with a special focus to Java.
This plant possesses special adaptations to the warm and humid conditions that are typical to the topical regions, with a high growth, good productivity and is higher in disease resistance as well. Yet, the fragrance and the flavours of this are not that good as that of the Arabica.
There are other types also like Coffea liberica, Coffea deweurei var, Excelsa and Coffea congensis are also pioneering for the fulfilment of world coffee requirement. Geisha, Jamaican Blue Mountain, Single Origin, Kona, Kapeng Barako, Maragogipe, Guadeloupe Bonifieur, S795, Bourbon, Pea Berry, Molokai and Monzooned Malabar are different varieties of coffee beans in use.
Flat white, Latte cappuccino, Macchiato, Piccolo Latte, Mocha, Soy Latte, Chai Latte, Long Black, Almond milk and Bullet proof are the healthiest choice of coffee regardless of age around the globe.
For both artificial and natural means these plants commonly use the method of reproduction by seed germination. 3 – 4 tears after the coffee is planted, flowers appear in the cluster. Fruit is produced in the fresh tissue layer. Coffee Arabica plant is specially self-pollinating while Robusta plant completely depends on cross pollination.
The bees transfer pollens from the male androecium to the female gynoecium (specially adapted reproductive structure of vascular seed plant) as they collect nectar. These insects improve the yield by increasing the number of pollens place on the stigma (part of gynoecium) and also accelerate the genetic diversity of the crop.
Highlights of coffee processing
The processing of coffee is a tough task and it is really necessary to regulate on this process to have a well finished outcome. The word ‘processing’ is technically referred to all the stages of the production, from the moment of hand picking the coffee berry which are fully ripe and reddish purple in colour until the berries are pounded and packed for shipping.
The seed is located inside the fruit so; the seed should be removed in the proper method to produce a consumer friendly product. In order to finish this task, we can use any of the three methods namely neutral, semi – washed and washed. Accordingly, if you are to have a very pleasurable you need to remove the seeds as soon as the berry is picked from the plant.
- Wet process
- Dry process
The pulping stage or the wet method, which is the basic fundamental process, begins when the berries are cleaned and washed using water with the help of particular tools to preserve the quality of the seed.
The process continues according to the weather until the moisture content drops to 10 – 11 percent.
Process of Roasting – The spectacular fragrance and the tasting of this beverage appear and rapidly develop by the extremely high temperatures which is about 220 – 230 0C to which the beans are subjected during this stage.
The internal pressure of gas expands the volume of the seeds from 30 – 100 percent. As a result; the seeds to become brown in colour, the texture becomes permeable and crumbly under the influence of pressure. This aroma emerges as a result of very complex and advance chemical transformation inside the beams.
Health benefits of coffee
Once you hear the word ‘coffee’ the energy boosting might come into your head but this is not just a thirst relief but a good solution to some major health issues in the society.
Riboflavin, niacin, potassium, magnesium and numerous other nutrients are present in coffee. These nutrients benefit the body in many ways. The five most important effective benefits of them all are,
1. Shield you from type 2 diabetes
Even the latest analysis proves that 4-6 cups of caffeine or at least decaffeinated coffee may reduce the risk to the metabolic syndrome.
2. Coffee against Parkinson’s disease
More than four cups may result a fivefold low threat of the Parkinson’s disease and also the caffeine helps to control the behaviour of the Parkinson’s disease in humans this is valid for people who are smoking as well. But there is no proof to say that this works the same for the decaffeinated coffee.
3. Liver cancer and coffee
4. Other liver diseases
5. Protect your cardiovascular health
Protection against heart failure, reduce blood pressure and cholesterol
Here are some other marvellous benefits for human beings from coffee that we really do not know they really can do to spend a best life:
- Help to improve your coordination
- Make your eyes less puffy
- Help you live longer
- Aids to get rid of cellulite
- Help to more calories
- Reduce stroke
- Low risk of colon cancer
- Help tighten your skin
- Speed up your metabolism
- Reduce risk of prostate cancer
- Reduce depression
- Make your physical activities fell easier
- Help your hair growth
- Reduce your risk of digestive diseases
- Low your risk of Melanoma
- Help reduce gout
- Decrease your risk of multiple Sclerosis
- Protect your eyes
- Help to get reduce from dandruff
- Prevent cavities
The main vigorous ingredient of this beverage is Caffeine which is a natural methylxanthine derivative that acts as an antagonist of Adenosine receptors. Caffeine is a most popular drug among mankind.
- Theophythine – Breaks down fats and accelerated blood levels of glycerol and fats
- Theobromine – Increases urination by diuretic effect and dilates blood vessels
This also processes the blood-brain-barrier, which is design in humans to separate the brain from the blood stream. Once this enters inside the brain, caffeine blocks the effecting of Adenosine, which plays an important role in energy production and sleep promotion.
Also, Caffeine does absorption, distribution and excretion similar in humans and most animals.
Hidden truths behind caffeine
Caffeine speed up energy metabolism within the brain and at the meantime decreases the cerebral blood flow which could possibly bring out a brain hyper fusion. Also, caffeine expects to norepinephrine on the animals that use neurotransmitters to regulate their heartbeat. In moderate doses this helps to increase alertness and reduce your sleepiness.
- Overcoming sleep deprivation – since caffeine increases alertness this reduces sleepiness
- Physical performance – enhance physical performance, increases energy and reduces perception of muscle pain
- Mental acuity – boost the concentration and working memory
- Prevent gallstone – regular and moderate consumption of caffeine prevent this disease
But however, regular intake of excess amount can lead up to difference problems in health such as poor concentration, nervousness, heartburn, constipation and diarrhoea. There are long term effects as well including anxiety, depression, mood swings, emotion breakdown, impaired judgement and sleep deprivation.
If you suddenly stop your daily intake of caffeine, this may also give rise to withdrawal symptoms including stomach ache, headache, irritability, loss of concentration and sleepiness in the presence of insomnia. These effects appear in between 12 – 24 hour after the stopping and will last for approximately a week.
Most Famous coffee brands
With the use of the finest quality Arabica as the foundation for its greatest expresso they have built up a wall of respect and popularity on their product.
2. Costa Coffee
A fantastic combination of royal English coffee which is a global shop as well.
3. Dunkin Donuts
This is a menu of great tasting food items with a great stunning coffee to have a great morning.
A coffee house style food and beverage chain which offers freshly prepared Arabica on behalf of you.
5. Tim Hrton
6. Gloria Jeans
The world-renowned coffee brand, Nescafe is a powdered coffee that became a U.S. staple during World War II and the coffee was originally developed in Switzerland.
When considering Folgers, it is a blend of both Arabica and Robusta which is hundred percent coffees without additives or preservatives.
Do not be classical to just instant coffee but try something new and here are the eight most famous coffee types for you and me to share.
A classical hot cappuccino
With reference to the classical hot cappuccino old, chilled but a fresh kick start for the beginning of the day. What you need is technically simple, and blend it up, whip it up and you will receive a brilliant cappuccino.
This is a magical combination of sweet and whisky laced coffee with whipped cream. Too easy, too addicted and very tongue catching.
This is a unique cup that matches your morning. Just in five seconds with the use of simple four ingredients you are able to witness this marvel.
This is a heavenly combination of daisy, ginger and scented cardamom. Furthermore; this coffee type is totally healthy and packed with healing powers.
Frappe and cold coffee
When considering this creamy homemade coffee frappe, it is a perfect combination of espresso and milk. Do not forget that this is a must for all summer.
This Italian based coffee made from frothed and espresso which differs from country to country. This is a totally creamy and it is also a royal deserving.
We think that you have to choose wisely because all these are superb and the taste grows from each slip. Here, we cannot help; try out what attracts you the best.